This transformation may be accomplished in a number of different ways, including alpha decay (emission of alpha particles) and beta decay (electron emission, positron emission, or electron capture).
Another possibility is spontaneous fission into two or more nuclides.
It is not affected by external factors such as temperature, pressure, chemical environment, or presence of a magnetic or electric field.
The only exceptions are nuclides that decay by the process of electron capture, such as beryllium-7, strontium-85, and zirconium-89, whose decay rate may be affected by local electron density.
By allowing the establishment of geological timescales, it provides a significant source of information about the ages of fossils and the deduced rates of evolutionary change.
Radiometric dating is also used to date archaeological materials, including ancient artifacts.
Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes, with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.