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What effect does a common chemical deicer have on concrete surfaces?

It is widely known that deicers containing ammonium nitrate and/or ammonium sulfate will chemically attack concrete.

This action normally increases the number of freeze/thaw cycles that water goes through, which in turn can increase the potential for concrete scaling.

Each time water in concrete freezes, it expands approximately 9%.

The resulting hydraulic pressures can exceed the strength limits of the concrete, causing pitting and/or scaling.

The greater the number of freeze/thaw cycles water goes through within concrete, the greater the potential for concrete damage.

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