Farther to the south in the Cauca Valley is Cali, the third largest city, which has some of the richest farmland.This area contains some of the richest mineral deposits in the world, including gold and emeralds.
All Colombians speak it except some of the indigenous populations in the Amazonian basin.
In major cities, English is used, particularly by the upper class, but it is not commonly understood or spoken.
Since declaring independence on 20 July 1810 and achieving it in 1819, Colombia has changed its name seven times.
Regional cultural traditions are diverse, with a broad range of distinct groups that have unique customs, accents, social patterns, and cultural adaptations.
The hot zone is marked by heavy annual rainfall along the Pacific coast.