The first is the age-old tradition of building inexpensive apartments over the retail space of business districts. Additionally, [housing over shopping] contributes much-needed height to retail buildings, which with only one story fail to adequately define street space.Duany Upstairs apartments provide customers for the shops, activity for the streets, and nighttime surveillance for the neighborhood. In addition to separating what might be perfectly compatible uses, such as stores and apartments, Euclidean zoning laws have also frequently dictated that no more than one unit shall be permitted on a single lot.
Significantly, a number of the contributing factors that have been cited for these trends have a common thread: a declining efficiency of land use.
Land-use efficiency has a long and practical history in town planning, beginning organically at the dawn of urban civilization, and refined in its method at least since the fifth century B.
Here is a timeline of the major inventions of the 18th century.
Supreme Court decision—which declared that the then relatively new practice of zoning ordinances was Constitutional—has been the ability of municipal governments to quash organic approaches to efficient land development.
In many cases, this impulse has served a valuable function, allowing communities to protect themselves from nuisances, incompatible uses, and the damage wrought by bad development.